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      ֙CWվ | “ϵ҂13981816376 | ղ
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        2017-09-04 09:27:06

        1 (Introduction)Sʮ塱ҎҌUˮŷŵҪڅ҇ˮh|FȻʮևȾŷųʬFŷڅ(2015)ͬrԴoȱȾ^еܺĆ}uҕ. ΢ȼ늳(Microbial Fuel CellMFC)һNԮa΢߻ͨ^オÌ惦ȾеĻWֱDܵb(Wang et al.2013)䑪Ó^̮ڸЧȥUˮеԪصͬrṩһlµˮ˼·(Tao et al.2015).MFCеÓ^ͨ֞ꎘOꖘO2NÓʽ. ꎘOÓ^Holmes(2004)об״ΰlFC΢ͬÓa늵Ŀ;SClauwaert(2007)OӋpMFC״ΌFͬÓ̼a늵늻WϵyԓϵyɞꎘOÓMFCϵyOӋ. ꖘOÓ^*Min(2005)ʹMFC̎BiUˮČбlFHe(2009)԰ΨһԴMFCPRCgCꖘO늉ݔ֮gPϵ. ȻĿǰÓMFCоҪڰ̳ͬÓ乲ͬȱڷ·LܺĸʣҰͷĻڸߵɭh•ܵ^(2013)ҪһЙCaoϵy^s^̲׿.Óˇˇ(Anammox)Bͼ(AnAOB)CO2oC̼ԴMдxL԰ӹw}wxa鵪(܊2014)ʽ1NH4+ + 1.32 NO2- + 0.066 HCO3- + 0.13H+ 1.02N2 + 0.26 NO3- + 0.066 CH2O0.5N0.15 + 2.03H2O(2006). һͬrȥ2NΑBĵȾкܸߵݷeЧҾẃBؓm̎ߵC/NȏUˮ(Ԫµ2013). ˌAnammoxMFCMͬÓaһđÃrֵͰlչ.Lee (2013)MFC벿օ̎߰BVҺ@94%Ŀȥʺ12 mWm-2ݔܶͨ^cMFCČfw}׃遆}MFCaܿ50%. x(2014)i⛻WꎘOɹꖘOAnammox-MFCݔ늉131 mVݷeȥʞ1.64~2.38 kgm-3d-1ͬn}M(2014)ʹƷwϵ̽AnammoxMFCе늻Wͨ^|DfNO2-ĴAnammoxNH4+ӎչFaͨ^ܿgfꖘOĤꖘOҺБҸͬa늹о鱾ṩһՓA.ĿǰAnammoxÓMFCо^ᘌAnammoxMFCеꖘOꎘO2N늻WϙC˿՚ꎘOͅ}ꖘOԱ⻯WꎘOrɳm늘OȾȱpMFCɸxꖘOṩ໥hڿƷlcͨ^늻WPϵAnammox-MFCϵy̽䷴ܼC.2 c(Materials and methods) 2.1 MOübá 1ʾOӋ4NMFCwAAnAOBwB}ab-MFCքeꖘOͺꎘOAnammox-MFCM;cd-MFCOӋּcb-MFCMAnammoxꎘOcyĿ՚ꎘOܵı^ͬr̽}ꖘOwϵ. ˱C՚ꎘOܵĿɱac-MFC՚ꎘO̼ϿꎘOҺһͿĨ0.5 mgcm-210%K̼߻(_2016)ͬrʹ՚ꎘOҺc䌦ꖘOҺͬԱ|ӽQĤɶ늌ʲeYӰ{՚ꎘOҺʼpH3.0ԴMO2߀ԭ. Mȫ(331)ĺB(ِSPX-250).bÅͬn}MTao(2014)о2ʽЙCҷ(Liu et al.2004)ƴϞһpMFC. D 1ʾ2Og|ӽQĤ(ŰNafion 117)ÿO҃ǻֱs3 cmL4 cmЧe7 cm2Чwes28 mL. ꖘO늘Oϲ̼(ϺɭHCP030)ꎘO̼(ϺɭHCP330)ʹǰքe1 molL-1}ȥxˮЗlˮԡ̎1 hȥs|. ÿMꖃ늘Oͨ^⁽zc·BɌBɼ(Keithley M2700)MЌr늉ӛ·“һoʽ׃늳ط\gOֵ1500 ʹÅ늘O(Ϻ״Ÿʹ232늘O)yꖃɘO늘O늄. OҺȡӼړQҺ^ʹһעaN2õĦ{оȫעռQע^ͨyַć. ՚ꎘOӱÌꎘOҺһõ250 mLFƿMؚͨ^wӋܽ.D 1(Fig. 1)D 1 pMFCʾD (1. ꖘO2. ꎘO3. Ӹ4. |Ƭ5. һע(5 mL)6. {оȫע(5 mL)7. tͨy8. 늘O9. ⁽z10. ̼11. |ӽQĤ12. ̼13. K̼߻14. oʽ׃15. ɼ16. ӱ17. 250 mLɫƿ18. wӋ19. ՚) Fig. 1 Schematic of single chamber MFC (1. Anode chamber2. Cathod chamber3. acrylic barrier4. gasket5. disposable syringe(5 mL)6. All-glass syringes with blue plunger(5 mL)7. Three-way Stopcock8. reference electrode9. titanium wire10. cabon paper11. PEM12. cabon cloth13. 10% platinum catalyst layers14. spiral rheostat15. data acquisition unit16. peristaltic pump17. amber(250 mL)18. gas flowmeter19. air pump)2.2 cO䡡քeֹȷN-(1-)-Ҷȷͼ{ԇȷyƷB(NO3--N)B(NO2--N)(NH4+-N)(TN)ָ@3NΑBֵ֮. ֹӋ(ϺUV2800)yƷֵʹpHӋ(ϺƝPHS-25)yƷpHֵÈl@΢R(‡˾Merlin)SEMD.2.3 wxBҺ䷽wAAnAOBwĻmԾu߀ԭøЁFѪtw^ʴutɫwΑB1~2.2 mm(van Niftrik et al.2008)ںwǰ}γɵİɫ係_3~8 mm. n}M\г^5 aAnammox-UASB(\ҫ2016)L̎ЙC̼ԴlDžs^. ҺBҺĻAϼ붨(NH4)2SO4NaNO2ÿ2 dQˮʹNH4+-Nȱ200 mgL-1ˮƽNO2--Nȱ240 mgL-1ˮƽ. MFCʹþwArȡs(3.0 0.3)g()ȫڲQʹҺBҺĻAϼߝȵ(NH4)2SO4NaNO2ʹOҺʼNH4+-NȞ400 mgL-1ˮƽNO2--NȞ528 mgL-1ˮƽԘߵؓMFC.wBG. sulfurreducensoɫҸBl¸. ҺBҺĻAϼ붨NaAcÿ24 hQˮʹ}ȱ0.01 molL-1ˮƽ. MFCꖘOʹþwBrҺеľwcMFCꖘOҺMֱQQҺʽ£14 mLԭꖘOҺa14 mLҺMһ(2015).BҺBҺ|䷽ 2ͱ 3ʾ{BҺpH7.00.5ˮƽBҺpH8.00.5ˮƽ.3 Y(Results) 3.1 aܡMFCнӷN}AnAOBijʹmweµĘOҺh茦M]·lZZڷքea-MFC 18 db-MFC 24 dc-MFC 15 dZõɜyݔ늉. ڷ\^ԸQꖘOҺ_ʼ늉ݔֵ1 mVڽYÿ1 minxȡ1늉ֵӛڃ늉׃ua.D 2YҊa-MFCȫڼs6700 min(4.7 d)o@늉EEF늉48 mV½ƽݔ늉24.5 mV;b-MFCȫڼs2900 min(2 d)ڳγF늉˲΢½늉ݔڼs2170 minռȫ74.8%*ݔ늉_502.2 mVƽݔ늉448.4 mVĩ늉ıMѸ½;c-MFCȫڼs7000 min(4.9 d)ڳ늉E늉^m_*ֵ430.9 mV½늳عڕrLs4700 minռȫ67.2%ƽݔ늉392.5 mVĩ늉Ѹ½½^b-MFC;d-MFC錦սMꖘOo΢ꖘOoӹw^ȫӛ늉0.02~2.38 mV늉a܁xӮa늌׃˲rꖘO늄ݲyxϵy`.D 2(Fig. 2)D 2 4NMFCݔ늉Srg׃ʾD Fig. 2 Electricity production of abcd-MFC3.2 Óܡȡab-MFC\е3ÓMзÿڃȡ6a-MFCꖘOҺb-MFCꎘOҺƷMаBBȜyLƝ-rg׃PϵD(D 3)Dÿc3Mƽֵ. ÿȡӺՌHaOҺԾSMFCϵyķ.D 3(Fig. 3)D 3 a-MFCꖘOҺ]·(a)_·l(c)b-MFCꎘOҺ]·(b)_·(d)l¸ΑBȺpHSrg׃ʾD Fig. 3 Comparisons of the time courses of Nitrogen concentration and pH change in anolyte of a-MFC under closed circuit(a)and open circuit condition(c)and catholyte of b-MFC under closed circuit(b)and open circuit condition(d)D 3a3bʾԿ2NH4+-NNO2--NȾSrgʆָPϵ˥p׃NO3--NSrgʾW̔MϽY£@Ȼ2ߵİBһWģ뷽ģͨʽC=C0e-kOBSt֪a-MFCа(0.0619)ȁB(0.0334)Ը̎ͬһԿ2ͨ^һͬȥ;b-MFCа(0.136)@ȁB(0.040)BԵa-MFCb-MFCNH4+AnammoxAϿɿ~ȥ·._·BD 3c3dʾab-MFĆBȾʾԽB׃Ѕ^ea-MFCʲڅı^ϷAnammoxA0~20 hA߀F20~50 hAγF˷;b-MFCBڷS65~75 mgL-1ˮƽ.3.3 RYڷ\мs4ºֹͣȡa-MFCꖘO̼b-MFCꖘO̼ꎘO̼s1 cm2ǰ̎MSEM. ɈD 4abefԿa-MFCꖘO̼b-MFCꎘO̼wSxɢֲ؈FȺӷŴ󱶔ԿwʙEAcAnAOBΑB(Yang et al.2010; Фo2014). D 4cdԿb-MFCꖘO̼wSۈFֲȺӷŴ󱶔ԿwʗUc}G. sulfurreducensΑB(Bond et al.2005).D 4(Fig. 4)D 4 RYDa-MFCꖘO̼(a)(b)b-MFCꖘO̼(c)(d)b-MFCꎘO̼(e)(f) Fig. 4 SEM image of a carbon paper anode of a-MFC(a)(b)a carbon paper anode of b-MFC(c)(d)and a carbon cloth cathode of b-MFC(e)(f)4 cӑՓ(Analysis and discussion) 4.1 a-MFCܷ 4.1.1 waÓܷYԿa-MFCa^ԭAnAOBBͼ䷴^c߀ԭλ^ֵͬ^͵Ŀ՚ꎘOYϺDٶ늳؃·С·늉. _·B]·rÓЧӷÓ@f]·rϠBMꖘOAnammox^̵M. ԭ_·oBӵľֲeیMijFAnammoxM]·l܉õrDM˷ķM.4.1.2 _]·B늳܌ȡD 5aʾa-MFC]·B\72 hꖘOҺNH4+-NNO2--NTNȥʷքe_99.1%94.0%86.9%ݷeȥؓ(NRR)ƽֵ0.417 kgm-3d-1. _·lNH4+-Nȥڷ\190 h^99%NO2--NTNȥʃH85.4%80.7%NRRƽֵH0.128 kgm-3d-1. ڈD 5bչʾĻWӋ-rgPϵϷ̓NO2--NæNH4+-NՓֵ1.32·̓NO3--NæNH4+-NՓֵ0.26ԿSM_]·l¦NH4+-NæNO2--NæNO3--N*KڅՓֵ11.320.26. ڷ]·lNO2--NNO3--NNH4+-Nıֵƫf^Փֵƫԭͨ·ꖘOγhMNH4+-NʧӱrDꎘOM߀ԭ;_·lµ3ӋPϵڷչFBƫBƫfڳFc.D 5(Fig. 5)D 5 a-MFCꖘOҺΑBȥ(a)ӋPϵ(b)Srg׃ʾD Fig. 5 Comparisons of the time courses of Nitrogen removal rate(a)and Stoichiometric ratio change(b)in anolyte of a-MFCͨ^a-MFC_]·^fAnammoxc늻WϵyMꖘOϺÓʺͷԾõͨ^c՚ꎘOϺ늘Oɱʾ飺ꖘONH4+-e-+NO2-N2+NO3-+H+;ꎘOO2+e-+H++H2O.4.2 b-MFCܷ 4.2.1 waÓܷca-MFCb-MFCa@ԭꖘOc^̷^DҲSӿ·γɵ@˿^늉ݔ. b-MFCcc-MFC^԰lFʹAnAOBꎘOڮa늏Ⱥͮa늷ԷK̼՚ꎘOЃfAnammox߂wҲĂfAnAOBɹMFCϵy֮. 2*ݔ늉ֵ಻fꖘO}ȻǮa^̵ؕIw. b-MFCһǰȥ@^^ͬȥāB~İȥ·SAnammoxMꎘOҺpHAԭhҺγNH3N2݊Aݳ. NH4+-N^ÓAnammoxܵNO2--Nȥʵa-MFC.bc-MFC֮gL̵IJԽጞb-MFCꎘOҺʽMˮݔ늉SĴMٽc-MFCꎘOҺBmʽMˮɱꎘOܽCw(O2)oڸL늉½龏.4.2.2 _]·B늳܌ȡca-MFCb-MFC_·B]·rÓЧ@ڷڲδԭꖘOЙCオaH+ͨ^xӽQĤMꎘOꎘOҺpHAnammoxM˷M.D 6(Fig. 6)D 6 b-MFCꎘOҺΑBȥ(a)ӋPϵ(b)Srg׃ʾD Fig. 6 Comparisons of the time courses of(a)Nitrogen removal rate(b)Stoichiometric ratio change in catholyte of b-MFCD 6aʾb-MFC]·B\24 h NH4+-Nȥ_96.4%48 h^99%; NO2--NTNȥ48 hr84.8%84.1%96 hӽ90%;NRRƽֵ0.516 kgm-3d-1. _·lNH4+-N@96.9%ȥҪ120 h˕rNO2--NTNȥʾH80.8%NRRƽֵH0.163 kgm-3d-1. ڈD 6bչʾĻWӋ-rgPϵԿSM_]·l3NΑBĵ֮څ򵫟o_Փֵ11.320.26. ]·lNO2--NNO3--NNH4+-NıֵʼKƫڰ́Bȥͬ;_·lNO3--NNH4+-NӋȏ1.09½0.167fڴɵBĩڱȥ.ͨ^b-MFC_]·^fAnammoxcBG. sulfurreducensꖘOϺӽQߵͬrÓʵõ@2߳PPϵ. b-MFC늘Oɱʾ飺(ꖘO)CH3COO--e-CO2+H+(ꎘO) NH4++NO2-+H3++e-N2+NH3+NO-+H2O.5 Y(Conclusions)1) ɹAnammoxĸߵؓpMFCꖘOÓa-MFCꎘOÓb-MFC400 mgL-1 NH4+-N528 mgL-1 NO2--Nėl·Ӳ\. b-MFC}ꖘO@ӿӽQ@*ݔ늉502.2 mVaڞ2900 min. ΑBȥҲ@48 hNH4+-NNO2--NTNȥʷքe_99%84.8%84.4%NRRƽֵ_0.516 kgm-3d-1a-MFC_ͬȥˮƽtҪ72 h.wҊˮ̳Yϻhttp://www.dowater.comPgęn2) ڸ_·B2NϷʽ]·BµNH4+-NNO2--NȾʆָPϵ˥p׃ÓͷԾ@. Ó^̾AnammoxA늻WϺ뷴Чʹ䦤NH4+-NæNO2--NæNO3--NĻWӋȃAʼKδ_11.320.26. 2ߵNH4+-NȥNO2--Nܵ~ȥ·քea-MFCꖘOʧӰb-MFCꎘOγNH3SN2ݳ. SEMYfab-MFCǰAnAOB}ڱϱָԱ^ΑB.

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